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05.12.2011 11:40 - ИЛЕКС ЗА КОЛЕДНАТА УКРАСА
Автор: kategarbo Категория: Хоби   
Прочетен: 69553 Коментари: 42 Гласове:
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Илексът е  символ на съвършенството и светлината в човешката душа. Това е най-празничното дърво през зимата в необятния дом на природата. По Коледните празници келтите в древна Галия раздавали клонки от илекс  отрупани със зрели червени плодчета. И досега в края на декември по улиците и цветарските магазини на Британските острови се продават такива клончета. От тях правят коледни украси, венчета за стени или за празничната трапеза, с тях украсяват и коледните сладкиши с пожелание за дълъг живот.

Илексът (Ilex vomitoria, познат в България като джел, самодивски чимшир или бодлива зеленика) е вечнозелен храст, произхождащ от Северна Америка. Естествени находища на джел у нас има в Странджа, Средна гора, Родопите и Беласица. Този рядък  вид  е под защитата на закона. Животът му е дълъг - до 300 години, но расте много бавно.  Най-често клонките за коледната украса се аранжират във вода. Когато  в помещението е топло, те образуват коренчета. През пролетта тези вкоренени резници  могат да се засадят на постоянно място. И понеже нараства бавно, илексът може да се отглежда и в саксии, които не се прибират през зимата (той не страда от зимните студове).

Какво представлява това красиво растение ? То е вечнозелено дърво с височина 5-10 m, с красиви лъскави кожести листа, в различни нюанси на зеленото, с добавка на жълто. Листата на илекса са с разнообразна форма - от яйцевидни до елипсовидни, със заоблен или назъбен връх. При някои сортове листата са с бодливи зъбчета. Илексът цъфти през май-юли с бели цветчета, които имат приятен аромат. Плодчетата  са овални, дребни, сочни, рубиненочервени, оранжеви или жълтооранжеви зърна. Задържат се трайно на клонките през зимата и гледката е незабравима на фона на белия сняг. Има мъжки и женски растения, но само женските образуват плодове. Затова трябва да се засаждат както мъжки така и женски растения (например от вида Ilex aquifolium сортът  Silver Queen е мъжки, а от Ilex altaclerensis - Golden King е женски). Илексът се цени не само заради  декоративните си качества. В естествените находища плодовете се използват за храна на  много птици и бозайници. Американците приготвят от листата и стъблата  чай, наречен asi. В листата се съдържат (в % чиста маса) кофеин – 0,34-0,94, теобромин – 0,03-0,31 и теофилин – 0,41-1,10.  Бялата дървесина на илекса лесно се оцветява и от нея се правят мозайки и инкрустации. Боядисана в черно дървесината не се отличава от тази на абаносовото дърво.

От какво се нуждае илексът ? - Нуждае се от  достатъчно влага. Растението предпочита сенчести места.  Почвата трябва да е богата на хранителни вещества, но с лек механичен състав. Студоустойчив вид е. През лятото саксиите трябва да се преместват на сенчесто място. Основната грижа е да се поливат редовно.  Размножава се чрез семена и вегетативно, но и двата начина са трудни. Семената покълват изключително бавно. Поникват след 2-3 години засети в почвена смес която редовно се навлажнява. Резниците също се вкореняват трудно, но са за предпочитане, тъй като се съкращава времето за производство на посадъчния материал. Пък и за Коледа стават чудеса, от коледната украса можем да произведем дръвчета.

За да не  изхвърляте с носталгия ежегодно изсъхналата коледна елха - купете си джел в саксия. Украсете го за празниците  за да  ви носи здраве  и късмет. Древните келти са били мъдри хора и дълбоко са вярвали в това.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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